Microsoft access 2016 vba programming free download
Type modAssignments and press Enter. To launch it, you should be in Microsoft Access. Click OK 6. During design, you should make sure you get a fairly good looking form by using appropriate font, sizes, colors and special styles. You can use this module in your own applications free of charge. To accomplish that, an event is considered a private matter. Examples would be: afterupdate, longbefore.❿
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On the Properties window, click the event to reveal its combo box. Practical Learning: Using Form’s Events 1.
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For this reason, whenever you decide to code an OnClick event, you should make sure you know what control sent or fired the event. This is one of the most common events of Windows controls. To see what the OnClick event looks like, on the Object combo box, select Detail. Notice that the skeleton for the Click event of the Detail section of the form is displaying.
Also notice the OnClick event does not carry much information. Switch back to Microsoft Access. Switch the form to Form View and click in the middle of the form to see a message box. Switch the form back to Design View Fundamental Events: The Double-Click Event To make the mouse more useful and to verify its role, another action can be performed on it. This consists of pressing the left button very fast twice. This action initiates an event known as OnDblClick.
By default, the DblClick event provides a simple structure to the programmer. You must know what control has been double-clicked and what you want to do. This means that the operating system relies on the control that “owns” the event. While Detail is still selected in the Object combo box, in the Procedure combo box, select DblClick 2. Notice the structure of the event 3. Switch to Microsoft Access and switch the form to Form View 5. Double-click in the middle of the form 6.
Switch to the Code Editor and delete all events or at least their contents between the Private and End Sub lines Fundamentals of Coding: The Indentation Indentation if a technique that allows you to write easily readable code. It consists of visually showing the beginning and end of an event or procedure, as we will learn. Indentation consists of moving your code to the right side so that the only line to the extreme left are those of the Private and End Sub lines.
The easiest and most common way to apply indentation consists of pressing Tab before typing your code. By default, one indentation, done when pressing Tab, corresponds to 4 characters. This is controlled by the Module property sheet of the Options dialog box.
If you don’t want the pressing of Tab to be equivalent to 4 characters, change the value of the Tab Width text box to a reasonable integer value and click OK. Otherwise, it is strongly suggested that you keep to its default of 4 characters. Click anywhere on the line that has MsgBox and press Home 2. Save the form and close Microsoft Access.
Introduction to Controls Events The controls used on Microsoft Windows applications provide the main means of interaction with the computer. To make such interaction effective, they send regular message to the operating system. There are many controls and they send various messages. Although you might have seen a great quantity of controls on some other applications or programming environments, Microsoft Access by default presents all of the regular control that a database would need.
When designing your database application, you will select which ever control applies to the result you are trying to achieve.
Whenever you decide to use a particular control, you should know its characteristics and limitations, the events it can send and what those events do. Practical Learning: Starting the Application 1. Start Microsoft Access and open the Fundamentals application created in the previous lesson 2. Open the frmMain form. Activating a Form A regular database application is equipped with various forms that carry appropriate data.
Each form is usually linked to a particular table. Since an application can have various forms, the user sometimes needs to open many of them at the same time, to view data from different forms.
Although a user can have two or more forms on screen at the same time, the user can perform any direct operation on only one form. When two forms are present on the screen, only one of the forms can receive input from the user. The title bar of such a form displays a different color than the title bar of the other. If you want to use the other form s , you must first make them active. To indicate the form that is active, Microsoft Access refers to the Control Panel where the Display manages colors for the applications.
The color of the title bar of the active form is set by the Active Title Bar color of the Appearance property sheet. When an application has two forms. The form that is active is, in Cartesian coordinates, above the other forms. If you click an area of another form provided the forms are modeless or a child of the application the other form becomes active. If you close the active form, the form that was second in Cartesian coordinates becomes active.
Whenever a form becomes active, to make its presence or “activeness” be known to the operating system, the form sends an OnActive event to the operating system. If another form becomes active, the form that was active sends an OnDeActive event to the operating system, letting it know that it has lost that privilege.
Practical Learning: Making a Form Active 1. To create a new form, in the Forms section of the Database Window, click New 2.
Make sure Design View is selected and click OK. Save the form as frmSecond and switch it to Design View if necessary 4. On the Form Design toolbar, click the Code button 5. In the Object combo box, select Form. In the Procedure combo box, select Active 7. Notice that a message box displays 9. Click OK to close the message box but leave the frmSecond form open. On the Database Window, double-click the frmMain form to open it. In the background, click the other form to make it active.
Notice that the message box displays again. In fact, they allow the user to work on as many forms as the computer can handle. But only one form can receive instructions at a given time. As we saw in the last exercise, only one form can be active at a time.
When a form becomes active, we consider that it has received focus. Just as an application can have many forms, a form can be equipped with various controls. Such is the case for any data entry form. On a form that is equipped with many controls, only one control can be changed at a time; such a control is said to have focus. As we saw that the form that has focus usually has its title bar with the active window color as set in Control Panel, in a form with many controls, the one that has focus will usually have a cursor or a dotted line around its selection.
When a form or a control has focus, Microsoft Visual Basic applies the GotFocus event to that form or control. If the focus shifts to another form or control, the control that had focus fires a LostFocus event and sends it to the operating system. Get back to the Code Editor. Give it to me” End Sub 3. Get back to Microsoft Access and click the frmSecond form.
Notice that the message box for the Active event comes up first. After you click OK, the message box for the GotFocus event displays.
Click OK. Consequently, note that the Active event fires before the GotFocus event. Get back to Microsoft Access and close the frmSecond form. When asked whether you want to save the changes, click No. Switch the frmMain form to Design View. If the Properties window is not displaying, double click the inside the form. If the Toolbox is not displaying, on the Form Design toolbar, click Toolbox 9.
On the Toolbox, click Text Box and click on the form. Change the label to First Name: and, using the Properties window, change the name of the text box to txtFirstName Add another text box to the form.
Change its label to Last Name: and change the name of the text box to txtLastName Access the Code Editor. In the Object combo box, click txtFirstName In the Procedure combo box, select Got Focus Return to Microsoft Access.
In the frmMain form, click in the First Name text box. Notice the sentence that displays in it. Pres Tab to move the cursor away. Notice that the First Name text box displays another message Giving Focus As you have seen, only one form among other form can be active for the user. On a form that has many controls, only one control can receive input from the user. Two problems will regularly happen to your users while they are performing data entry: they need to have the right form or control and they need to make sure they are entering data in the intended control.
At all times, it is certainly your responsibility to make these items accessible. With code, you can specify which control has focus and when. This can tremendously make the users’ job easier. To give focus to a control when another action happens, type the name of the control followed by the period operator, followed by the SetFocus procedure. SetFocus End Sub Keyboard Events Word processing consists of manipulating text and characters on your computer until you get the fantastic result you long for.
To display these characters, you press some keys on your keyboard. If the application is configured to receive text, your pressing actions will display characters on the screen. The keyboard is also used to perform various other actions such as accepting what a dialog box displays or dismissing it. When the user presses the keys on a keyboard, The control in which the characters are being typed to sends one or more messages to the operating system.
There are three main events that Microsoft Windows associates to the keyboard. These last two events apply to almost any key on your keyboard, even if the user is not typing; that is, even if the result of pressing a key did not display a character on the document. When programming your database, you will need to know what result you are expecting, then choose the right event.
Some keys on the keyboard do not display anything on a document. Instead, they perform only an action. Examples of such keys are Enter, Tab, Esc. Therefore, if you mean to find out what key the user pressed, use the OnKeyDown event and not the OnKeyPress event, even though the user will have pressed a key.
Practical Learning: Keyboard Events 1. To see the list of keyboard events and their structures, click the arrow of the Procedure combo box and select KeyDown. Compared to the keyboard, the mouse claims many more events that are directly or indirectly related to pressing one of its buttons. When the user presses one of the buttons on the mouse, an event, called OnMouseDown, is sent to the operating system.
This event carries enough information for the programmer as three arguments. The left button is known as vbLeftButton. The right button is referenced as vbRightButton. If the mouse is equipped with a middle button, it would vbMiddleButton. In reality, these buttons have constant numeric values of 0, 1, and 2 respectively. In reality, they are represented with 1, 2, and 4 respectively. X represents the distance from the top left corner of the screen to the right direction.
Y represents the vertical measure of the point from the top-left corner down. Mouse Events: The MouseUp When the user releases a button that was pressed on the mouse, a new event is sent to the operating system. This event is called MouseUp. Click the arrow of the Procedure combo box and select MouseDown 2. Notice the structure of the OnMouseDown event. As far as users are concerned, forms are the most important parts of a database. For a database developer, data is in fact stored in tables.
Table Design Visually, a table is made of cells. A cell on a table is simply the intersection of a column and a row: A column is a category of information. All data on a particular table conforms to the exact same kind of data. This means that data on a particular column can be made of text. Data on another column can be configured for numeric values. Another column can restrict the type of data that is entered on its fields. This analysis shows us that a column in fact controls data that is entered on a table.
To manage data entered under a column, Microsoft Access provides categories that control what type of data can, should, or must be entered in a cell. To specify a particular data type for a column, you must design the table that would hold the data.
This is done in a special display of the table called Design View. To display a table in Design View, if you are just designing the table, from the New Table dialog box, click Design View. For example, to get a sum of two numbers that the user is supposed to enter in a form, when creating such a form or report, you would not know what the user entered in two boxes, but you can write an expression that would use whatever the user enters, to get a new value.
The values involved in an expression could be external to the program, such as algebraic numbers; they could also come from the program itself, such as a BillingRate or a DateHired fields; and they could be a combination of algebraic numbers and controls content on your program. Comments In the programming world, a comment is a piece of text in Visual Basic code that Visual Basic in reality the compiler would not consider when reading your code.
As such a comment can be written any way you want. In Visual Basic, the line that contains a comment can start with a single quote. Anything on the right side of rem, Rem, or REM would not be read.
They can never hurt your code and they don’t increase the size of your application. Comments can help you and other people who read your code to figure out what a particular section of code is used for, which can be helpful when you re- visit your code after months or years of not seeing it.
For example, suppose you have a field that displays a first name and that field is called FirstName. Practical Learning: Using the Assignment Operator 1. Open the VBAccess1 application 2. Open the Assignment form 3. After viewing the form, switch it to Design View 4. On the form, click the First Name text box to select it.
On the Properties window, click the Event tab. Double-click On Lost Focus 7. Right-click On Lost Focus and click Build Return to the form and switch it to Form View Click the First Name text box. Notice that the Full Name text box got filled with the value of the First Name when the First Name text box lost focus.
A string is an empty space, a character, or a group of characters that you type or provide to a control and you want this character or this group of characters to be considered “as is”. In other words, the expression or the control that receives the string should keep it or them the way you supplied it or them.
Most of the time, you will want the program to keep this character or group of characters exactly the way you or the user supplied them. In order to let the program know that this is a string, you must enclose it in double quotes. Notice that the Object combo box displays txtFullName. For example, it could allow you to concatenate a first name and a last name, producing a full name. After concatenating the expressions or values, you can assign the result to another value or expression using the assignment operator.
Return to the form and click First Name 4. Type Hermine and press Tab 5. Type D and press Tab 6. In the Last Name text box, type Summers and press Tab 7. Notice that the first button is selected. Press Enter 8. Close the dialog box. When asked whether you want to save the form, click Yes. The Negation Operator – In mathematics, an integer such as or a double floating number such as If a number is less than 0, to express it, you can add the – sign on the left side of the number.
Examples are or The – sign signifies that the number is negative. A variable or an expression can also be represented as negative by prefixing it with a – sign.
Examples are -Distance or -NbrOfPlayers. To display a negative value or a negative expression in a field, use the assignment operator. You can provide such a result to another variable or control. This is done using the assignment operator. Open the frmAlgebraicOperators form.
After viewing it, switch it to Design View 3. The accompanying resources include pictures of geometric figures. To enhance the form, you can add them. To do that, on the Toolbox, click Image and click the left area of the labels. On the Insert Picture dialog box, locate the picture and add it. On the form, click the Quadrilateral tab. Right-click the top Calculate button and click Build Event On the Choose Builder dialog box, double-click Code Builder.
In the Object combo box, select cmdRCalculate 7. Return to the form and switch it to Form View 9. In the Quadrilateral tab, click Side and type Click the top Calculate button Click Length and type Click Height and type Click the other Calculate button After using the form, return to the Code Editor The Subtraction: – The subtraction is performed by retrieving one value from another value.
This is done using the – symbol. After the operation is performed, a new value results. This result can be used in any way you want. After using the form, switch it to Design View and get back to the Code Editor 4. Return to the form and switch it to Form View 6. Click the Circular tab and change the top Radius the radius of the circle to For example, when you cut an apple in the middle, you are dividing it in 2 pieces.
If you cut each one of the resulting pieces, you will get 4 pieces or fractions. This is considered that you have divided the apple in 4 divisions.
Therefore, the division is used to get the fraction of one number in terms of another. Microsoft Visual Basic provides two types of results for the division operation. After the operation, the result would be a natural number. The result of the operation can be assigned to another value. The result of either operation can be assigned to another value. Either or both y and x can be values or expressions, but they must carry valid values that can be evaluated.
When the operation is performed, the value of y is raised to the power of x. Get to the form and switch it to Form View. In the Quadrilateral property sheet, enter After using the form, switch it to Design View The Remainder Operator: Mod The division operation gives a result of a number with or without decimal values, which is fine in some circumstances.
Sometimes you will want to get the value remaining after a division renders a natural result. Imagine you have 26 kids at a football soccer stadium and they are about to start. You know that you need 11 kids for each team to start. If the game starts with the right amount of players, how many will seat and wait? The remainder operation is performed with keyword Mod. The parentheses in an operation help to create sections in an operation. This regularly occurs when more than one operators are used in an operation.
Parentheses allow you to specify which operation should be performed first in a multi-operator operation. This would produce As you can see, results are different when parentheses are used on an operation that involves various operators. This concept is based on a theory called operator precedence. This theory manages which operation would execute before which one; but parentheses allow you to completely control the sequence of these operations. Practical Learning: Using the Exponentiation Operator 1.
Return to the form. Test the rectangle and the ellipse. The Square Brackets Operator:  When reviewing name rules for our objects in Microsoft Access, we saw that we should use names that are made of one word no space. In reality, Microsoft Access, as mentioned already, is particularly flexible with names.
Therefore, it uses a mechanism to delimit a name when such a name is involved in an operation. The operator used to specify the beginning of a name is the left or opening square bracket [. At the end of a name, a right or closing bracket is used. To be safe, whether a name is made of one or more words, Microsoft prefers including it in square brackets.
Therefore, in an operation, also called an expression, instead of using such a name as FirstName, you should use [FirstName]. Of course, if a name is made of more than one word, which is frequent on databases created using the Database Wizard, you must always include it in square brackets.
In the Object combo box, select cmdECalculate and implement its event 3. Test the rectangle and the ellipse The Collection Operator:! The objects used in Microsoft Access are grouped in categories called collections.
The forms belong to a collection of objects called Forms. The reports belong to a collection of objects called Reports. Therefore, all forms of your database project belong to the Forms collection. To call a particular form in an operation, using the exclamation point operator, type Forms followed by the!
An example would be Forms! If the name of the form is made of more than one word, or for convenience strongly suggested , you must use square brackets to delimit the name of the form.
Therefore, the form would be access with Forms! The first! Employees means the Employees form belongs to the Forms collection. The second! Therefore, you can access the embedded form as follows: Forms! TimeSheet and you can use the square brackets to delimit the name of each form as follows: Forms! This happens regularly if you are writing an expression that involves many entities that must belong to a group. To continue a piece of code from one line to the next, type an empty space followed by an underscore symbol, then continue your code on the next line Practical Learning: Using the Underscore Operator 1.
Return to the form and switch it to Form View. Click the 3-Dimensions tab and test box shapes: 6. Save the form and close it The Period Operator:. We will find out that a property is something that describes an object. For example, users mainly use a text box either to read the text it contains, or to change its content, by changing the existing text or by entering new text.
Therefore, the text the user types in a text box is a property of the text box. To access the property of an object, type the name of the object, followed by a period, followed by the name of the property you need. The property you are trying to use must be part of the properties of the object. In Microsoft Access, to use a property of an object, you must know, either based on experience or with certainty, that the property exists. In Visual Basic, the Code Editor is very helpful and would display the list of properties once you type the period: If you know the name of the property, you can start typing it.
Once the desired property is highlighted, press the Space bar or Tab. If you see the name of the property in the list, you can double-click click it. If you don’t want to use the list displayed by the Code Editor, press Esc.
Once you have specified what property you want to use, you can assign it the desired value or you can involve it in any operation you see fit. Constants A constant is a value that doesn’t change this definition is redundant because the word value already suggests something that doesn’t change.
There are two types of constant you will use in your programs: those supplied to you and those you define yourself. It is used to interrupt a line of text and move to the next line. It is highly used in operations that involve circles or geometric variants of a circle: cylinder, sphere, cone, etc.
Built-in Logical Constants: NULL A variable is said to be null when its value is invalid or doesn’t bear any significant or recognizable value. Otherwise, the expression is said to bear a true result. The name held by a field allows you, the database developer, and the operating system, to refer to that particular field. To specify the name of a field, type a name in the Field Name column of the table in Design View The name of a field can also be specified in Datasheet View.
There are rules and suggestions used to specify a name for a field. Instead of Firstname, we will use FirstName. Instead of Dateofbirth, we will use DateOfBirth. After specifying a name of the field, you can decide what type of data can be entered into that field.
The types of data are organized in categories. To specify a data type, click under the Data Type column. The field can hold up to characters. The Memo data type functions like the Text except that it can hold up to characters. The Number data type allows a combination of digits using 0 to 9. As you will see shortly, there are various types of numbers. You will get to specify further number formats you need for your database.
There are various formats used. The Currency data type will accept only a number in its field. That number is then converted to represent money value. You use the AutoNumber data type to ask Microsoft Access to complete that field with automatically generated numbers for a field whose numbers you don’t need to control.
An OLE Object field allows you to include pictures, graphics, other application files for example Microsoft Word documents or Microsoft Excel spreadsheets, etc. With the Hyperlink, you can provide a link to a file in your computer or to a web page on the Internet. The Lookup Wizard specifies some predefined data on a particular column. These data are usually prepared by you.
If the Database Window is not present, press F In the Database Window, click Tables. In the Tables section or Tables property sheet, click the New button 3. Notice that the first field under Field Name has focus. Click the arrow of the Data Type combo box and select AutoNumber 6. Click the first field under Description and type Automatic number set by the database 8. To save the table, on the Table Design toolbar, click the Save button. Type tblTimeSheet and press Enter.
Press the down arrow key. Type DateEntered and press Enter Complete the table as follows: When asked whether you want to save the table, click Yes. After viewing the table, close it. To customize the behaviors of your fields for a functionality you cannot implement in Microsoft Access, you will use Microsoft Visual Basic as a programming language. The computer memory is made of small storage areas used to hold the things or components that a program needs while it is running.
As a programmer, you specify these things, or you provide them to the computer; the computer then puts them in its storage areas. When you need one of them, you let the computer know. The machine “picks it up”, brings it to you, and then you can use it as you see fit. In the world of computer programming, a variable is a value you ask the computer to temporarily store in its memory while the program is running. Declaring a Variable In order to reserve that storage area, you have to let the computer know.
Letting the computer know is referred to as Declaring the variable. You declare a variable using the Dim keyword, like this: Dim Just like any of the controls we have used so far, a variable needs to have a name.
There are rules you should follow when naming your variables. To name a variable, follow the same rules and suggestions we used for a table’s fields. To declare a variable, locate the event that you want to use the variable in.
Follow the above syntax and the below suggestions and data types. This time, a data type tells the computer what kind of variable you are going to use in your program.
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